After getting I2S sound output running on the Raspberry Pi, I started communications with an ADAU1701. The chip has no sample rate converter (ASRC) integrated, therefore I had to configure the Raspberry Pi to output 48kHz I2S with BCLK=64*FS. I used the TDA1541A module, because it did exactly what I was looking for – at least at 44.1kHz.
However, when I switched to 48kHz, the I2S output changed. What happend? At 48kHz, the I2S bit clock was only 32*FS, not 64*FS anymore. It looks like a feature of the driver. This needs further investigations. I might have to create a special driver, that only enables 48kHz with BCLK=64*FS.
Update: I had a look in the driver code. Looks like there is a bug in the driver. I did a short hack to fix this temporarily, now it looks good:
Unfortunately the ADC produces only noise. I have to investigate if there is a problem with the I2S data stream or if the signal quality is to poor to interpret the data correctly.